Gun control activists have spent years trying to limit the number of assault-style firearms available to civilians: holding rallies, drafting proposed laws and backing campaigns by shareholders of publicly traded gun makers.
Now, one advocacy group is focusing on a different pressure point: the consumer banks that provide loans and other financial support to the gun industry.
The group, Guns Down America, which formed in 2016 after a mass shooting in Orlando, Fla., has created a ranking system that gives 15 banks letter grades based primarily on their ties to firearms makers and trade groups like the National Rifle Association.
Six of the banks, including JPMorgan Chase and Wells Fargo, received failing grades. Citigroup earned the highest one, a B.
Igor Volsky, Guns Down America’s founder and executive director, said he hoped the grading system would compel banks to be more publicly supportive of gun control measures, in the same way that many companies have taken positions on gay rights, immigration and other social issues.
Part of the mission, he added, is stopping “the Wild Wild West of how gun manufacturers both produce military-style weapons and also how they can market those firearms.”
“We’re not interested in shaming banks or running a campaign focused on how evil they are,” Mr. Volsky said. “Our end goal is to change the way banks make decisions when doing business with the gun industry.”
The group used a 100-point scale that applied different weights to factors like a bank’s loans to and investments in gun makers; its public statements about gun safety; its support for lawmakers backed by the N.R.A.; and the discounts and deals it offers to N.R.A. members.
The basis for the grades was publicly available information gathered from media reports, regulatory documents, campaign finance filings and other sources. Any undisclosed updates to gun-related deals, legal complications that might affect those arrangements and internal discussions were not reflected.
Guns Down America said it had shared its methodology and individual grades with all 15 banks and was involved in continuing talks with some of them, but several banks contacted for comment said that they had not been consulted and that the group had relied on arbitrary metrics.
In the last year, gun safety groups have begun looking more closely at the firearms industry’s corporate ties, with the scrutiny leading some businesses to make changes.
After a mass shooting in Parkland, Fla., Delta Air Lines, Hertz and several other companies broke with the N.R.A., and retailers like Dick’s Sporting Goods made some guns harder to buy. Influential Wall Street figures like Laurence D. Fink, the chief executive of BlackRock, publicly embraced gun safety efforts.
In March, estimated firearm sales in the United States slipped 12.6 percent from a year earlier, to nearly 1.4 million units, according to the research firm Small Arms Analytics & Forecasting.
The financial industry’s connections to gun makers have drawn attention before. In December, The New York Times reported that many of the mass shootings in the last decade had been financed with credit cards.
[Read out how banks unwittingly provide financing for mass shootings.]
Some banks have already started to revise their policies and practices on firearms. Citigroup, which earned a score of 84 from Guns Down America, said in March 2018 that it would work only with clients that agreed to certain restrictions on firearm sales.
A short time later, Bank of America said it would stop lending to companies that made military-inspired firearms for civilian use. It was subsequently criticized for its commitment to contribute .2 million in bankruptcy financing for Remington.
Bank of America, which did not respond to a request for comment, got a C from Guns Down America.
The six banks that received failing grades all had more than 0 million in recent financial arrangements with gun companies, according to Guns Down America.
The group gave JPMorgan Chase a 48, finding that it had contributed ,000 to politicians strongly supported by the N.R.A., and had a 3 million financing arrangement with Vista Outdoor. Guns Down America did not specify whether the money was directed only to Vista’s gun business, which the company had said it plans to sell.
Marianne Lake, JPMorgan’s chief financial officer, said last year that the bank’s links to military-style firearms “have come down significantly and are pretty limited.” JPMorgan declined to comment on the Guns Down America grade.
BB&T was last on the Guns Down America list. Its score of 20 was partly a result of its arranging 7 million in loans to the industry from 2012 to 2016 and partly a result of its recent involvement in a million revolving credit line for Smith & Wesson, according to the gun control group.
Brian Davis, a spokesman for BB&T, said the bank was “deeply concerned with the increasing amount of gun violence in our schools and communities,” and listened to “a wide range of opinions” on gun control. He said the bank did not comment publicly about its financial relationships.
Guns Down America found that Wells Fargo, which fared slightly better at 25 points, had extended 1 million in loans and credit to gun makers since 2012, including a million loan to Sturm Ruger last year. The N.R.A. also uses Wells Fargo, and the bank donated ,000 to a group of lawmakers supported by the trade group, Guns Down America said.
Trisha Schultz, a Wells Fargo spokeswoman, said in a statement that the bank planned to invest more than million over three years in studying gun-violence prevention and in improving school safety. The bank, she said, has “a small and declining relationship with the N.R.A.”
But Ms. Schultz added that “changes to gun laws and regulations should be determined through a legislative process that gives the American public an opportunity to participate and not be arbitrarily set by a bank.”
“We do not believe that the American public wants banks to decide which legal products consumers can and cannot buy,” she said.B:
六肖10中6也有奖【在】【农】【民】【的】【震】【慑】【之】【下】，【足】【足】【有】【十】【八】【名】【奇】【才】，【瞬】【间】【将】【身】【上】【的】【太】【白】【令】【子】【令】【交】【了】【出】【来】。 【而】【欧】【阳】【晴】【雪】，【只】【需】【在】【里】【边】【拿】【走】【十】【块】【太】【白】【令】【子】【令】，【就】【能】【够】【获】【得】【进】【入】【造】【化】【之】【门】【的】【名】【额】。 “【那】【怎】【么】【行】【呢】？”【欧】【阳】【晴】【雪】【眼】【中】【不】【由】【闪】【过】【了】【一】【丝】【感】【激】【之】【色】。 【事】【实】【上】，【她】【也】【很】【想】【立】【刻】【得】【到】【足】【够】【的】【太】【白】【令】【子】【令】，【然】【后】【去】【跟】【萧】【羿】【团】【聚】。 【可】【是】，
【林】【淼】【这】【边】【和】【秦】【潼】【说】【完】【话】，【视】【线】【一】【转】【就】【看】【到】【了】【秦】【达】【恒】【那】【略】【带】【光】【芒】【的】【眼】【神】。 【像】【是】【很】【欣】【赏】【她】。 【虽】【然】【她】【对】【秦】【达】【恒】【不】【了】【解】，【但】【是】【也】【知】【道】【这】【绝】【对】【不】【是】【单】【纯】【的】【欣】【赏】。 【他】【在】【打】【什】【么】【主】【意】？ 【林】【淼】【嘴】【角】【勾】【了】【勾】，【眼】【里】【笑】【意】【荡】【漾】【开】，【扬】【声】【道】：“【秦】【大】【人】，【你】【考】【虑】【好】【了】【吗】？【药】【是】【要】【不】【要】？” “【要】【要】【要】…” “【那】【钱】…”
【神】【弈】【拍】【了】【拍】【手】【上】【的】【灰】，【垂】【眸】【一】【笑】。 【突】【然】【他】【口】【袋】【里】【的】【手】【机】【响】【了】，【他】【拿】【出】【手】【机】，【居】【然】【还】【是】【医】【院】【打】【来】【的】【电】【话】，【他】【接】【起】【后】【五】【秒】，【挂】【了】【电】【话】【倏】【地】【站】【了】【起】【来】。 “【怎】【么】【了】？”【厉】【辞】【也】【站】【了】【起】【来】，【与】【他】【平】【视】。 “【大】【局】【醒】【了】”【神】【弈】【转】【身】【下】【了】【天】【台】，【厉】【辞】【紧】【随】【其】【后】。 【大】【局】【他】【还】【是】【知】【道】【的】，【本】【名】【顾】【千】【秋】，【当】【时】【医】【院】【给】【顾】【千】【秋】【打】【电】
【坎】【特】【利】【某】【个】【偏】【远】【地】【区】【的】【地】【底】【宫】【殿】： 【传】【说】【兰】【尔】【斯】，【巴】【帝】【利】，【坎】【特】【利】【三】【大】【公】【国】【的】【英】【雄】，【简】【称】‘【三】【英】【雄】’【的】【大】【贤】【者】【之】【一】，【坎】【特】【利】【的】‘【精】【灵】【之】【光】·【卡】【修】·【雷】【恩】’【的】【鬼】【魂】【还】【在】【这】【个】【消】【亡】【的】【宫】【殿】【徘】【徊】，【以】【及】【贝】【西】【莉】【亚】【的】【祖】【父】，【前】【魔】【法】【师】【协】【会】【会】【长】，【三】【人】【齐】【名】。 【最】【开】【始】【就】【素】【不】【相】【识】【的】【三】【人】【联】【名】【讨】【伐】【了】【当】【时】【祸】【害】【极】【大】【的】‘【曜】【黑】【龙】【王】六肖10中6也有奖【炼】【焰】【阁】，【大】【铖】【山】。 【如】【今】【的】【大】【铖】【山】【再】【次】【恢】【复】【了】【平】【静】，【原】【本】【升】【腾】【高】【涨】【的】【炼】【心】【焰】【已】【经】【变】【得】【平】【和】【下】【来】，【仿】【佛】【清】【泉】【一】【样】【在】【大】【铖】【山】【上】【流】【淌】，【滋】【润】【万】【物】，【滋】【润】【生】【灵】。 【囚】【牛】【君】【主】【早】【已】【带】【着】【新】【炼】【制】【的】【两】【柄】**【离】【开】【了】，【那】【两】【柄】**，【皆】【是】【以】【磁】【暴】【星】【为】【主】【炼】【制】【而】【成】，【蕴】【含】【着】【恐】【怖】【的】【磁】【暴】【力】【量】。 【斧】【成】【双】【刃】，【漆】【黑】【战】【柄】，【看】【起】【来】【便】【是】【威】
【飘】【忽】【的】【灯】【光】【照】【映】【出】，【石】【砌】【地】【面】【上】【有】【着】【三】【道】【黑】【色】【的】【倒】【影】。 【一】【道】【是】【于】【驰】【的】【影】【子】，【另】【外】【两】【道】【都】【从】【顾】【俊】【身】【上】【倒】【出】，【一】【道】【正】【常】，【另】【一】【道】【却】【歪】【斜】【地】【分】【裂】【在】【旁】【边】。 【顾】【俊】【心】【中】【瞬】【间】【闪】【过】【很】【多】【想】【法】，【沉】【声】【问】【道】：“【于】【队】【长】，【你】【能】【看】【到】【吗】？” 【什】【么】？【于】【驰】【疑】【惑】【地】【顺】【着】【他】【的】【目】【光】【看】【去】，【顿】【时】【也】【面】【色】【一】【变】，【胡】【子】【绷】【紧】【了】，“【看】【得】【到】。”
【被】【李】【平】【安】【的】【目】【光】【看】【着】，【天】【府】【司】【总】【长】【身】【体】【微】【微】【一】【颤】，【往】【后】【退】【了】【一】【步】。【不】【过】，【天】【府】【司】【总】【长】【没】【有】【逃】。 【因】【为】【他】【知】【道】，【逃】【也】【没】【有】【用】。 【而】【且】，【他】【对】【自】【己】【的】【掌】【控】【里】【有】【足】【够】【的】【自】【信】。 【虽】【然】【陛】【下】【居】【然】【是】【武】【道】【强】【者】，【有】【些】【出】【乎】【他】【的】【意】【外】。 【可】，【即】【便】【陛】【下】【是】【武】【道】【强】【者】，【也】【无】【法】【和】【三】【位】【统】【领】【抗】【衡】！ “【动】【手】，【送】【陛】【下】【上】【路】！”【天】
【璀】【璨】【的】【光】【芒】，【直】【接】【照】【亮】【了】【远】【处】【的】【黑】【夜】。 【本】【来】【已】【经】【入】【夜】【的】【区】【域】，【顿】【时】【变】【得】【宛】【若】【白】【日】，【但】【更】【甚】【白】【日】！ 【嗡】【嗡】【嗡】！ 【高】【音】【声】【无】【端】【响】【起】，【所】【有】【云】【朵】【惧】【怕】【的】【退】【开】，【甚】【至】【无】【数】【的】【白】【云】【乌】【云】，【都】【刹】【那】【间】【染】【成】【了】【金】【色】。 【转】【眼】【间】，【连】【无】【数】【的】【湖】【泊】【与】【大】【地】，【都】【被】【染】【成】【了】【金】【色】。 【四】【季】【战】【场】【的】【区】【域】，【更】【是】【金】【光】【闪】【闪】，【令】【许】【多】【正】【在】【用】
【这】【些】【将】【军】【们】【实】【力】【都】【颇】【为】【不】【俗】，【但】【也】【从】【未】【见】【识】【过】【这】【种】【无】【形】【且】【还】【能】【温】【和】【地】【将】【人】【扶】【起】【的】【力】【量】，【都】【有】【些】【惊】【住】【了】。 【而】【杨】【天】【则】【是】【微】【笑】【着】【开】【口】【道】：“【各】【位】【将】【军】【为】【了】【保】【家】【卫】【国】，【也】【是】【贡】【献】【了】【无】【数】【心】【血】，【我】【只】【是】【力】【量】【稍】【微】【强】【大】【一】【点】，【帮】【助】【你】【们】，【一】【起】【保】【住】【了】【怀】【南】【国】【而】【已】。【功】【劳】【应】【该】【是】【同】【等】【的】，【你】【们】【也】【不】【必】【对】【我】【过】【于】【推】【崇】。” 【将】【军】【们】【听】